Presence of 3-Deoxyglucosone, a Potent Protein Crosslinking Intermediate of Maillard Reaction, in Diabetic Serum (2023)

Cited by (77)

  • Two α-dicarbonyls downregulate migration, invasion, and adhesion of liver cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner

    2013, Digestive and Liver Disease

    Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for more than 600,000 deaths per year due to it being a highly invasive tumor. The α-dicarbonyl, methylglyoxal demonstrates efficacy at reducing tumor burden, however the anti-cancerous activities of 3-deoxyglucosone, have never been studied.

    To determine the anti-cancerous potential of methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone on liver tumor cells.

    The in vitro effects of methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone were studied by investigating migration, invasion, and adhesion of Huh-7, HepG2, and Hep3B cells.

    3-Deoxyglucosone inhibited migration of Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. Methylglyoxal decreased migration of HepG2 cells. Additionally, 3-deoxyglucosone and methylglyoxal impaired invasion, and adhesion of Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. In Hep3B cells, a p53 null cell line, 3-deoxyglucosone and methylglyoxal had no effect on migration, invasion, or adhesion. However, both compounds inhibited invasion of wild-type p53 transfected Hep3B cells. Silencing of p53 in Huh-7 and HepG2 cells abrogated the effects of the α-dicarbonyls on cell invasion. 3DG and MG did not alter p53 total protein but promoted nuclear translocation of p53.

    These studies suggest that 3-deoxyglucosone and methylglyoxal impair invasion, migration, and adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma. The effects of both compounds on cell invasion are dependent on p53 and imply that α-dicarbonyls could be efficacious in the treatment of p53-expressing invasive liver tumors.

  • Immunochemical detection of 3-deoxyglucosone in serum

    2004, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

    3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) is a metabolite of glucose that is thought to lead to the production of advanced glycation end products in diabetes. The previous assay for 3-DG in serum was based on a multi-step protocol, including derivatization, extraction, HPLC separation, and detection. In the current studies, we established a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the 3-DG-derivative, which is generated by the reaction of 3-DG and a 2,3-diamino-benzene derivative. Attachment of a biotin moiety to the 2,3-diamino-benzene ring via a linker allowed development of a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for 3-DG equivalents. Unlike the previous assay, this method does not require extraction of 3-DG derivatives from serum. Treatment of 3-DG in serum with the DAB-link-biotin produced a quinoxaline derivative, which was specifically recognized by the monoclonal antibody. Using this assay, we found that serum 3-DG was higher in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats than in normal control rats (25±5.6 vs. 9.8±1.1μg/L). This simple assay may allow the monitoring of conditions leading to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products and evaluation of the risk of complications in diabetic patients.

  • Metformin inhibition of glycation processes

    2003, Diabetes and Metabolism

    A number of studies have shown that metformin is beneficial in reducing diabetes associated vascular risk beyond the benefits expected from its antihyperglycaemic effect. One of the main pathogenic mechanisms leading to chronic complications of diabetes is non-enzymatic glycation where damage is mediated through increased production of highly chemically reactive glucose and α-dicarbonyl compounds which lead to production of advanced glycation products (AGEs). We present laboratory and clinical data supporting the hypothesis that one important explanation of metformin's effect on diabetic complications could be its ability to reduce toxic dicarbonyls and AGEs. This effect could be related either to the binding of the α-dicarbonyls, methylglyoxal (MG) or 3-deoxyglucosone, or to an increase in enzymatic detoxification. Our studies presented in this manuscript document extracellular binding of MG by metformin to form a specific product (triazepinone) in vivo. This condensation product appears to be only one of several inactive end products resulting from this chemical reaction and we discuss the possibility that these or other condensation products (hydroimidazolones) could be indicative of inactivation of MG by metformin. Additional studies of other possible condensation products, as well as other potential cellular effects of metformin on MG production, will help to clarify this potentially important effect of metformin and provide a further rationale for using metformin to prevent long-term complications.

  • Glycation - A sweet tempter for neuronal death

    2003, Brain Research Reviews

    Glycation, one of the post-translational modifications of proteins, is a nonenzymatic reaction initiated by the primary addition of a sugar aldehyde or ketone to the amino groups of proteins. In the early stage of glycation, the synthesis of intermediates leading to the formation of Amadori compounds occurs. In the late stage, advanced glycation end products (AGE) are irreversibly formed after a complex cascade of reactions. Several AGEs have been characterized chemically, while other new compounds remain to be identified. To date, studies of the contribution of glycation to diseases have been primarily focused on its relationship to diabetes and diabetes-related complications. However, glucose-induced damage is not limited to diabetic patients. Although it does not cause rapid or remarkable cell damage, glycation advances slowly and accompanies every fundamental process of cellular metabolism. It has recently become clear that glycation also affects physiological aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Glycation alters the biological activity of proteins and their degradation processes. Protein cross-linking by AGE results in the formation of detergent-insoluble and protease-resistant aggregates. Such aggregates may interfere with both axonal transport and intracellular protein traffic in neurons. In addition, glycation reactions lead to the production of reactive oxygen species. Conversely, glycation is promoted by oxidative stress. We speculate on the presence of synergism between glycation and oxidative stress. In this review, we provide an outline of glycation and propose some possible mechanisms of its cytotoxicity and defense systems against it.

  • Identification in human atherosclerotic lesions of GA-pyridine, a novel structure derived from glycolaldehyde-modified proteins

    2002, Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Glycolaldehyde (GA) is formed from serine by action of myeloperoxidase and reacts with proteins to form several products. Prominent among them isN ε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), which is also known as one of the advanced glycation end products. Because CML is formed from a wide range of precursors, we have attempted to identify unique structures characteristic of the reaction of GA with protein. To this end, monoclonal (GA5 and 1A12) and polyclonal (non-CML-GA) antibodies specific for GA-modified proteins were prepared. These antibodies specifically reacted with GA-modified and with hypochlorous acid-modified BSA, but not with BSA modified by other aldehydes, indicating that the epitope of these antibodies could be a specific marker for myeloperoxidase-induced protein modification. By HPLC purification from GA-modifiedN α-(carbobenzyloxy)-l-lysine, GA5-reactive compound was isolated, and its chemical structure was characterized as 3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl) pyridinium cation. This compound named as GA-pyridine was recognized both by 1A12 and non-CML-GA, indicating that GA-pyridine is an important antigenic structure in GA-modified proteins. Immunohistochemical studies with GA5 demonstrated the accumulation of GA-pyridine in the cytoplasm of foam cells and extracellularly in the central region of atheroma in human atherosclerotic lesions. These results suggest that myeloperoxidase-mediated protein modification via GA may contribute to atherogenesis.

  • Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of erythrocyte 3-deoxyglucosone in diabetic patients

    2002, Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences

    To determine if the erythrocyte levels of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) are increased in diabetic patients, and if they correlate with glycemic status, they were measured in diabetic patients without renal disease as well as in healthy subjects. The erythrocyte levels of 3-DG were measured by a selected ion monitoring method of gas chromatography–chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [13C6]-3-DG as an internal standard. The erythrocyte levels of 3-DG were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy subjects. The erythrocyte concentration of 3-DG was significantly and positively correlated with HbA1c (r=0.84, P<0.001). However, no significant correlation could be found between erythrocyte 3-DG and age, onset age of diabetes, or duration of diabetes in our group of diabetic patients. In diabetes, the production of 3-DG in the erythrocytes is increased via the polyol pathway and/or the Maillard reaction due to hyperglycemia.

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    Associations of SHBG with some anthropometric and metabolic variables in FDR suggests that lower levels is a marker for risk of developing T2D through obesity dependent metabolic pathways but low FAI is a better marker of state of diabetes in males.

Copyright © 1993 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

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